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교과과정

Requirements : for both MS and PhD

Diseases and Disorders in Brain Science

This course provides in-depth introduction to the pathogenic mechanisms of major neurological disorders including degenerative diseases, addiction, psychiatric disorders and developmental diseases. Recent updates of basic research on potential pathogenic mechanisms and pathological markers are covered.

Introduction to Brain Science

Introduction to modern molecular and cellular neurobiology. The course includes cell biology of neurons and glias, ion channels and electrical signaling, synaptic transmission and integration, neurotransmitter systems, sensory systems, motor systems, and brain development and neurogenesis.

Introduction to Systems Brain Science

This course provides in-depth introduction to the pathogenic mechanisms of major neurological disorders including degenerative diseases, addiction, psychiatric disorders and developmental diseases. Recent updates of basic research on potential pathogenic mechanisms and pathological markers are covered.

Journal Club in Brain Science

The purpose of this journal club is to create a learning environment for the students through the analysis of the articles. The students will hone the essential skills of critical thinking and effective presentation, as well as stay up to date in the field of neuroscience.

Method in brain Science

This course covers the techniques essential for the study of neuroscience, including molecular and cellular approaches, genetics, statistics, electrophysiology, and imaging

Thesis

A thesis serves as a basic learning unit of scholarly work by training students in formulating testable hypothesis and research questions, assessing scientific literature, and writing original research into dissertation. Students present a public seminar based on their thesis as one of the requirements for graduation.

Electives

AD/PD

This course will provide students with basic biology about Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD), which are the most common neurodegenerative disorders. The most current research literatures and open discussion format will be introduced to stimulate the excitement of the lecture and to be exposed to cutting edge ideas.

Behavioral Neuroscience

This lecture course focuses on behavioral neuroscience from a species- and research-based perspective. We will discuss particular but various organisms including C. elegans, Drosophila, fish, birds, and human and explore their behaviors and their contributions to neuroscience. In addition, we will learn historical and current importance of the study of animal behaviors to our knowledge of the brain and neuroscience. This lecture covers Introduction to Neuroethology, Neurobehaviors of squid, aplysia, C. elegans, drosophila, fish, birds, rodents, monkeys and human, and finally evolution of behavior.

Biophysics

It aims to teach students on the fundamental concepts of thermodynamics and statistical physics for understanding biological phenomena. The biological phenomena inherit her complexity in nature and it is important to have the physical intuition to grasp the simplicity from the complexity. This course will also emphasize the universal nature of the essential similarity between biological phenomena and many phenomena in physics for students to open an eye in realizing what is meant by the converging science.

Brain and Metabolism

The goal of this course is to understand brain metabolism. Students will learn about types, mechanisms, and regulations of metabolism in neurons and non-neuronal cells.

Text books: A. Kalsbeek et al., Hypothalamic integration of energy metabolism, Elsevier
Grade: Based on attendance and reports

Brain Pathology

This course aims to provide the in-depth mechanisms of neurological diseases, both chronic and acute. Research and up-to-date review articles inherent to the class topics will be presented by students to understand the scientific and technical approaches in the study of molecular and cellular pathogenic processes of brain diseases. This course is recommended for the students who have taken “Diseases and Disorders in Brain Science” course, indicating the prerequisite background.

Brain Signal Processing

The course will use experimentally derived data from brain to introduce key concepts such as spectral analysis and filtering, analysis of electrophysiological spike and local field potential oscillations. Lectures will include in-class computer programing exercises in Matlab. Students will be shown how to use simple computer scripts to process and analyze data.

Chemical Senses

“Chemical Senses” course studies the neurobiology of smell and taste in mammals and other organisms. It will focus on the anatomy and physiology of the peripheral and central nervous systems regarding smell (or olfaction) and taste (or gustation). It will also cover behavior study of the chemical senses in various models including rodents, fruit flies and nematodes. Neuronal disorders related to the chemical senses will be also examined. Enrollment limited to 15.

Cognitive Functions in the Human Brain

How do we PERCEPT, LEARN, MEMORIZE, and THINK things?
In this class, we are going to learn several important topics in human cognitive psychology with experimental evidence.

Convergent Neurotechnology

Neurotechnology sounds a new and exciting future technology that will transform how we live and how we define ourselves. However, there has been neurotechnology for decades, which is deeply rooted in science and engineering about the brain.

Current topics in neurodevelopment

Through presentation and discussion of most recent review and research articles, this class will cover key areas in the field of neurodevelopment from epigenetics to mitochondria in 16 weeks. The goal of this class is to explore key concepts in neurodevelopment, which will enable you to be well equipped to catch up with the most recent findings in the field.

Developmental Biology

The developmental biology is to understand the processes that lead from fertilized of an egg to the formation of a well-structures and functional multicellular organism. This course is to provide comprehensive and fundamental concepts of development (mainly animal development) with multimodal approaches at molecular, cellular and organismic levels. It covers developmental genetic programs and cell-to-cell communications, stem cell, mechanisms of cell fate determination and cell differentiation, cell commitment specification during early embryonic development, cellular interaction during organogenesis, and finally the relevance of development for human welfare including genetic errors in human birth defects, environmental problems with endocrine disruptors, and evolutional diversity (evo devo).

Imaging and Time-Series Data in Neuroscience

Understanding temporal manifestation, such as sequence, oscillation and rhythm, is fundamental to complete comprehension of any neuroscientific events. Time-series data, consisting of successive measurement made over a time intervals, is basic data form to organize temporal aspect of the events. Imaging technique, allowing non-invasive and repetitive measurement from the identical subject, is one of the most appropriate and popular approach to obtain time-series data in neuroscience.

Introduction to Neurodevelopment

Our brain is at the core of generating sensations, behaviors, and higher order mental processes. However, we have only a very limited understanding of how our brain works due to the fact that our brain is one of the most complex organ in the universe, in which more than 5000 neuron types exist and make 1015 synapses. In the field of neurodevelopment, neuroscientists are trying to understand our brain by studying what our brain is composed of and how those components are wired. Cells in the nervous system are born from a diverse progenitor cells. Unlike other cell types in our body, neurons migrate a long distance, project axons and dendrites, find correct targets, and form connections with their target cells. These whole processes have to be tightly controlled; otherwise a minor error during these processes will lead to a severe behavioral and mental defects. Neuroscientists made a huge progress in understanding the nervous system since Ramón y Cajal discovered that our nervous system is a network of neurons. We are beginning to molecularly define individual neurons through next generation sequencing; we are also able to make the brain transparent and examine the whole brain without further dissections; we can even manipulate neuronal functions in vivo with diverse switches. These advancements in the field of neuroscience would be impossible without better understanding the development of nervous system. Developmental neuroscience helps to understand not only normal brain but also brains with functional defects. Defects in the development of the nervous system are directly related to a lot of neurological disorders including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, ALS, autism, seizure, and schizophrenia. By understanding the molecular, cellular, and circuit mechanisms underlying the development of nervous systems, we will be able to have a better grip on the cause of those neurological disorders, which will lead us to develop better ways to help those with neurological disorders.

Introduction to neuropsychiatric disease

This course will explore the biological basis of several neuropsychiatric diseases such as autism, schizophrenia, depression or epilepsy, with an emphasis on validation of key pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these disorders. It will include discussions of the anatomical basis of neurological diseases as well as recent research into understanding the mechanisms of disease. This course is aimed to provide students with knowledge about neuropsychological and neurobiological aspects of mental illness. The students will also be exposed to recent literatures to learn how these devastating disorders have been investigated in model animals using multidisciplinary approaches.

Mechanisms of Cell Death

This course aims to provide the biochemical mechanisms of neuronal cell death with an overview of programmed cell death and in-depth understanding of morphological, biochemical and cell biological markers of cell death. This course is not taught with text books, but handouts which will be provided by the lecturer as powerpoint will be given. Students are required to present seminal articles in the history of programmed cell death to stimulate discussion and understanding of scientific approaches and methodologies in the field of neuronal cell death. Practical aspects of modulating cell death mechanisms for therapeutic design of neurodegenerative diseases will be covered.

Metabolic Diseases

The goal of this course is to understand the pathology and mechanisms of brain function in metabolic diseases especially obesity and diabetes. Students will learn about the basic research and application to prevention and treatment of metabolic diseases.

Text books: G. J. Biessels and J. a. Luchsinger, Diabetes and the brain, Humana Press
Grade: Based on attendance and reports

Mitochondrial Biology

This class is designed to teach students having biological knowledge the essential functions of mitochondria and our current understanding about the mitochondrial dysfunction in many diseases. Students will present research papers or review papers, and then all students will participate in the open discussion. The class will cover major mitochondrial functions such as energy production, antioxidant defense, Ca2+ homeostasis, as well as the fusion/fission dynamics of mitochondria, etc.

Modulation of Neural Circuits

Neurons are interconnected with one another to form neural circuits, with much higher complexity as electronic components are wired together to form a functional circuit. The ysfunction of neural circuits underlies a wide range of human brain disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders. This course will utilize the circuit of the hippocampus, (+ amygdala, hypothalamus??) as models to study the structural and functional architecture of neural circuits and the diverse modes of the circuit modulation.

Neurophysiology

On channels are important functional part of modern neuroscience. The understanding of ion channel activity in excitable cells is required for the treatment of several types of neural and heart diseases. In this lecture series, the students will study the basic properties of ion channels, cell membranes and electrophysiology using the well-known book 'Ion channels of excitable membrane' written by professor Bertil Hille.

Text book: Ion channels of excitable membranes, 3rd edition, Bertil Hille Students will be required to present the designated chapter and to write a report at the end of semester.

Neuroscience

The goal of Neuroscience (신경과학) is to build a strong base of general knowledge in neurobiology, to survey the systems within the brain that control sensation and movement, to explore how different neuronal systems contribute to different behaviors, and to explore the cellular and molecular basis of brain development and learning and memory. In this lecture series, the professors will teach from the basic properties of neurons to the systems and related diseases in brain. This course is strongly recommended for students who want to select the Brain &Cognitive Sciences as his/her major as well as who are interested in the brain-related research topics.

Textbook: Neuroscience Exploring the Brain, 4rd edition, Mark E. Bear, Barry W. Connors, Michael A. Paradiso Students will be evaluated based on attendance, reports (homework) and two written exams.

Neuroscience Techniques for In Vivo Research

This course is to introduce the neuroscience techniques with a focus on in vivo studies using laboratory animal models. This course will include, but not limited to, mouse transgenic/breeding techniques, surgical/bleeding/infusion procedures, in vivo gene delivery/drug administration techniques, and animal behavioral tests that are widely used in neuroscience. This course will cover basic principle of each technique, as well as its applications in the neuroscience field. Each student will introduce at least a technique of his/her own expertise, with brief introduction of research project. Alternatively, they will be asked to present research or review papers about the state-of-the art techniques. All students will be encouraged to join open discussion to share their knowledge and experience. Brief demonstration session can be arranged during the course, if needed.

Preclinical models of neurological disorders

Introduction of preclinical model systems that have been established and heavily used for studying various neurological disorders.

Proprioception and next generation genetics

Proprioception, a sense perceiving the position of body parts, is one of the sensory modalities of an animal. In contrast to five sensory modalities – vision, audition, gustation, somatosensation, and olfaction – identity of molecular proprioceptors and molecular mechanism of sensory transduction remains largely unknown. Mechanoreceptors that recognize mechanical force imposed upon the cellular membrane of the proprioceptive organ are prime candidates for proprioceptors. The strong current induced through the mechanoreceptors suggests that understanding proprioceptors may provide an insight into the development of next generation genetics for controlling the activity of neurons.

Sensory Neurobiology

The course studies the biology of sensation in mammals and other organisms. It covers five senses such as sight (vision), hearing (audition), taste (gustation), smell (olfaction), and touch (tactioception). It will focus on anatomy, physiology, and mechanisms of sensory neurons and organs, and it will also cover the comparative studies of these neurons and organs between vertebrates and invertebrates in the term of neuroscience.

Signal Transduction

Consideration of the signal transduction mechanisms in the neuronal cell systems. Emphasis will be on the mechanisms of neurotransmitter, hormone, and drug action at synapses and the molecular basis for physiology and pathophysiology of the nervous system. The understanding of signal transduction through plasma membrane in neuronal cells is required for the treatment of several types of neural and heart diseases. In this lecture series, the students will study the basic pathways of receptor-mediated signal transduction through cell membranes. The format will be lecture, group discussion, and analysis of recent research. Students will be required to present the designated recent papers and to write a report at the end of semester.

Supercomputing for Convergent Scientist

It aims to lead students to be able to (1) perform supercomputing calculation, (2) analyze complex big data of their scientific interest using supercomputing PC cluster, and (3) visualize their scientific findings. The first part of the class covers the basics of the Linux computing system. The class offers a practical opportunity for students to set up a Linux operating system with a personal PC and then build up a supercomputing PC cluster made of many PCs together with a network switch which controls the traffic of communication among those many CPU processes. In the second part of the class, students are trained to operate/manage the supercomputing cluster, perform the supercomputing calculation of the scientific problems either explored by students or provided by professors. Then, students are expected to show their independent ability to present/visualize the results of their supercomputing calculation. This course offers the hands-on experience of scientific supercomputing to students whatever career they pursue.

Synapse Biology

The synapse is the fundamental element by which neurons transmit, receive, and transform neural information in the brain. Synapses are functionally diverse, and a single neuron in the brain receives up to 10,000 synapses. In this course, students will learn to critically analyze the primary research literatures to explore how synapses have been studies and to understand how synapses integrate information to perform higher-order behaviors. Ultimately, this lecture course is aimed to introduce basic principles and knowledges to graduate-level students, by covering molecular principles underlying synaptic transmission, synapse formation, wiring, and plasticity, which has been investigated in various model organisms.

Topics in social and emotional neuroscience I

In this semester, we will learn how astrocytes communicated with neighboring neurons to regulate neuronal circuits and behaviors.

Trends in Cognitive Neuroscience

The purpose of this class is to discuss high impact, insightful, and interesting articles from the areas of cognitive neuroscience, more specifically, human studies using functional/anatomical MRI, modeling, and psychophysics. The format is an interactive, open forum with a primary presenter and the full participation of the audience. Students will learn the trends in cognitive neuroscience as well as how to analyze and criticize journal articles, how to present information in scientific community, and how to develop experimental design.